An ontology to express in a formal way high-level scientific claims. It encompasses a super-pattern, a formal structure in which the semantic claims can be represented. An instance of this super-pattern consists of a context class, a subject class, a qualifier, a relation and an object class.
___is same as: "[subj] and [obj] are the same individual"
|___compares to: "[quantifiable-subj] compares to the [quantifiable-obj]"
| |___has similar value as: "[quantifiable-subj] has a value that is similar with [quantifiable-obj]"
| | |___has same value as: "[quantifiable-subj] has the same value as [quantifiable-obj]"
| |___has different value from: "[quantifiable-subj] has a value that is different from [quantifiable-obj]"
| |___has smaller value than: "[quantifiable-subj] has a smaller value than [quantifiable-obj]"
| |___has larger value than: "[quantifiable-subj] has a larger value than [quantifiable-obj]
|___has causal relationship with: "[subj] has causal relation with [obj]"
| |___affects: "[subj] affects the activity of [obj] in the sense of positively or negatively affecting its intensity or frequency"
| | |___contributes to: "[subj] contributes to the activity of [obj] in sense of positively affecting its intensity or frequency"
| | |___enables: "[subj] causes the activity of [obj] to happen"
| | |___inhibits: "[subj] inhibits the activity of [obj] in sense of negatively affecting its intensity or frequency"
| | |___prevents: "[subj] causes the activity of [obj] not to happen"
| |___increases: "[subj] causes the value of [obj] to increase"
| |___decreases: "[subj] causes the value of [obj] to decrease"
| |___requires: "[subj] would not exist if [obj] did not exist"
| |___causes: "[subj] causes the existence of [obj]"
| | |___is-necessary-and-sufficient-for: “[subj] causes the existence of [obj], and [obj] would not exist if [subj] did not exist”
| |___is caused by: "the existence of [subj] is caused by [obj]"
|___has spatio-temporal relationship with: "[subj] has a spatial and/or temporal relation with [obj]"
|___includes: "[subj] spatiotemporally includes [obj]"
|___is included in: "[obj] spatiotemporally includes [subj]"
|___co-occurs with: "[subj] is close to [obj] in terms of space and time"
|___is followed by: "[subj] comes into existence before [obj]"
|___follows: "[obj] comes into existence before [subj]"
There are five basic qualifiers that can be used:
___always: "true in 100% of cases"
|___generally: "true in at least 90% of the cases"
|___mostly: "true in at least 50% of cases"
|___frequently: "true in at least 10% of cases"
|___sometimes: "true in at least 0.1% of cases"
These basic qualifiers also come with their negative counterparts:
___never: "true in 0% of cases"
|___generally not: "true in at most 10% of cases"
|___mostly not: "true in at most 50% of cases"
|___frequently not: "true in at most 90% of cases"
|___sometimes not: "true in at most 99.9% of cases"
On top of that, these qualifiers can also be modified with "can" and are interpreted according to modal logic semantics of possible worlds. “Can” therefore means “there is at least one accessible possible world where the given statement is true” or “it is possible to make it become true”.
___can always: "can be made true in all 100% cases"
|___can generally: "can be made true in at least 90% of cases"
|___can mostly: "can be made true in at least 50% of cases"
|___can frequently: "can be made true in at least 10% of cases"
|___can sometimes: "can be made true in at least 0.1% of cases"
|___can never: "can be made true in 0% of cases"
|___can generally not: "can be made true in at most 10% of cases"
|___can mostly not: "can be made true in at most 50% of cases"
|___can frequently not: "can be made true in at most 90% of cases"
|___can sometimes not: "can be made true in at most 99.9% of cases"
This super-pattern instance is stating that in the context of all persons, things of type obesity together with metabolic abnormality frequently (in at least 10% of the cases) have a relation of type "co-occurs with" to things of type knee osteoarthritis. So, in other words, people with obesity and metabolic abnormality tend to also frequently suffer from knee osteoarthritis.
The authors would like to thank Silvio Peroni for developing LODE, a Live OWL Documentation Environment, which is used for representing the Cross Referencing Section of this document and Daniel Garijo for developing Widoco, the program used to create the template used in this documentation.